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S J Paris Bibliography Generator

S.J. Parris, the pseudonym for Stephanie Merrit, is writing in the fairly crowded market of the historical/religious murder mystery, which brings with it both a potentially very loyal group of readers, or a series of comparisons to such writers as C.J. Sansom, creator of Elizabethan sleuth Matthew Shardlake (with a 6th book , Lamentation, scheduled for publication for Autumn 2014). So, series that establish a central character who is then followed through a number of adventures, which each installment building on and deepening the character of the central protagonist are part and parcel of this genre. Parris’ work fits neatly into this pattern, and by June 2014, her central character, Giordano Bruno has been on four adventures with a fairly heavy hint of a fifth installment set in Paris woven into the end of the latest book in the series, Treachery. So, let’s back track a bit and look at the books in their sequence. The book to open the series was  Heresy  (Harper, 2010, ISBN 978-0007317707), which introduces us to an unexpected central character. Unusually for this type of series, the hero of the piece is a historical figure; in this case, Giordano Bruno (1548-1600), an apostate Dominican friar whose actual biographical facts make for quite a sensational story of their own anyway, even regardless of his literary reinvention as one of Sir Francis Walsingham’s spies! Parris draws on facts of Bruno’s established bibliography and fills in the gaps, focusing especially on Bruno’s years in England between 1583-85. Bruno met Philip Sydney and was part of the hermetic circle surrounding John Dee, so these facts become part of the narrative for Heresy (Book 1) and Prophecy (Book 2). The historical Bruno, a ceaselessly energetic, inquisitive theologian-philosopher- mathematician of clearly considerable personal charisma but little willingness to compromise establishes an excellent stereotypical protagonist for the story as the literary ‘Bruno’ stands on his own and is free to form attachments doomed to failure because we all know that in the end, he will be tried for heresy and executed. So what Parris has done here is to create a hero where there is little need for a backstory- she knows that the type of reader attracted to a historical murder mystery is likely to have historical knowledge already- and this allows her to play, keep the reader guessing about plot lines and every so often, she moves from fiction to fact and weaves the fictional story into the established historical narrative. This tension between fact and fiction is skillfully handled and as is the sign of a good book, it ceases to matter very quickly and the reader becomes instead involved with the story. Heresy, the first book, is set in Oxford in 1583 and a series of spectacularly gruesome murders (we are talking people mauled by dogs, slit throats, stabbed altar boys, that sort of things) following key passages from Foxe’s Book of Martyrs unfold like staged set pieces. Clearly, the murders are motivated by religious dissent so of course the excommunicated apostate Bruno gets embroiled and starts to investigate. The plot revolves around recusants in Oxford colleges and before it all resolves itself there are priest holes, books on the Index of Prohibited Books, damsels in distress and a wonderful villain in as good a page turner as one might wish for. The characters are beautifully set out and the plot is developed well in a believably conceived historic setting. Heresy, the second book, is set in London and has some wonderful sequences set at Hampton Court which allow Parris to showcase her research and in lending the court sequences such gravitas and authenticity, she of course has gained the trust of the reader for her plot that revolves around the Great Conjunction of 1583, and the concomitant fears and superstitions surrounding that date.Where in 1524 the Great Conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn in the Constellation of Pisces led to fears of the end of the World, the coming of the Antichrist and generally political unrest (some contemporaries associated Luther and the Reformation with this conjunction), the recurrence of this conjunction, in October 1583, was seen by astrologers as a challenge to the reign of Elizabeth I. And again, thrusting the excommunicated Giordano Bruno into this heady mix of astrology, heresy, prophecy, not to mention murder, makes for a great backdrop to a carefully crafted and engaging story. In the third outing for Bruno, in Sacrilege, the scene of the crime- and therefore of the action- moves from London to Canterbury (Parris again moving her historical character into a fictional setting) where Bruno finds himself up to his neck in the goings on inside the great Cathedral. Parris picks up a few of the story threads from her first book, Heresy, developing the theme of Catholic recusants providing political opposition to Elizabeth I’s reign, focusing in particular on changed modes of church worship. The cult of saints, practices such as Masses to the Dead, reliquaries, pilgrimage etc were an important expression of medieval Christianity, and Parris thrusts Bruno into a context where memories of the old religion were still very much part of a community’s religious make up. Where the high point of Prophecy were the set pieces at Hampton Court, their place is taken in Sacrilege by a series of sequences played out in Canterbury’s Court of Assizes. Treachery, the fourth instalment in the series, reunites Bruno with his friend Philip Sydney at Portsmouth. Of course there has been a murder, this time on board of Sir Francis Drake’s flagship, so this time Parris stages her action in a port and against the expectation both of an imminent invasion of England by a Spanish Armada but also at he height of Drake’s fame with hopes for riches and gains made in the New World at a fever pitch. Bruno again finds himself embroiled in a mystery that deepens as the body count rises with the story resolving itself in a a fabulously swash-buckling finale including secret tunnels and derring-dos on board Drake’s ship. These are great page turners that combine a fabulous grasp of story telling and characterisation with a sure sense of historical context and will I be reading the fifth one, the one where Bruno returns to Paris! Definitely! We have 8 years left between Bruno’s return to Paris and his trial and imprisonment for heresy in Rome. He has yet to reach Wittenberg and Padua, and yes, of course I know that his adventures are fictional, but I like Parris’ way of bringing fiction and facts together. *** Below are details of the books and some links to published reviews- enjoy. Heresy (Harper, 2010, ISBN  978-0007317707) Prophecy (Harper, 2011, ISBN 978-0007317738) Reviewed by  Sophia Martelli in the Observer; Anna Mundow for the  Washington Post Sacrilege (Harper, 2012, ISBN 978-0007317783) Treachery (Harper, 2014, ISBN 978-0007481194) – reviewed by John Gallagher(@earlymodernjohn) for The Telegraph 

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July 18, 2014 in Art History and Renaissance in Fiction. Tags: Canterbury, Elizabethan England, Giordano Bruno, John Dee, London, Oxford, Plymouth, S.J. Parris, Sir Francis Walsingham


Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition) requires author's given or first names to be spelt out in full in a reference list. This is the preference when using Harvard.

However, if you are unable to find an author's first name, copy the format for author's name on the item you are citing. This may mean that some author's given names will be spelt out and some will have initials.


No author

Use the title in place of the author. Put the title in italics.

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In text

(Title Year)

(Stedman's medical dictionary for the health professions and nursing ...)

Reference List

Title. Year. edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Stedman's medical dictionary for the health professions and nursing. ...


Corporate author

The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g. government bodies or organisations) are written in full in the reference list and the first time they are cited. The acronym for a name may be used in second and subsequent citations. Include jurisdictions if a government body, e.g. Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management.

If the unit name is not unique enough to be found without the jurisdiction and government department information, include the jurisdiction and department name. Where the department name is included, it comes before the unit name.

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In text

First use:
(Jurisdiction. Government Department, Year)
(Name of Organisation, Year)

(Australian Bureau of Statistics ...)

Subsequent uses:

(ABS, ...)

Reference List

Jurisdiction Government Department. Year. Title of document. Place of publication: Publisher.

Department of Justice and Attorney-General, Workplace Health and Safety Queensland. ...

United States. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. ...


Author and editor

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In text

(Surname Year)

(Derrida ...)

Reference List

Author. Year. Title, edited by Editor name. Place of publication: Publisher.

Derrida, Jacques. ... , edited by Derek Attridge. ...


Author as editor

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In text

(Surname Year)

(Woolever ...)

Reference List

Insert ed. after the author's name, in the reference list only.

Author, ed. Year. Title, Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Woolever, Karen Reese, ed. ...


Author quoted in another work (Secondary Source)

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In text

Name the original author, and then cite the secondary author (i.e. the author you read).

(Original author surname quoted in Secondary author surname Year, page from secondary author's book)

(Zukofsky quoted in Costello ...

Reference List

Reference the secondary source only in the reference list.

Secondary author. Year. Title of secondary source. Place of publication: Publisher.

Costello, Bonnie. ...


Two(2) to three(3) authors

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In text

List all authors in every citation.

(Surname 1, Surname 2 and Surname 3 Year, page)

(Layton, Robinson and Tucker ...

Reference List

List all authors. For 2-3 authors, only the first-listed name is inverted. For the second and third author, the first given name and middle initial(s) - if available - are written in front of the family name.

Author 1, Author 2 and Author 3. Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Layton, Allan, Tim Robinson and Irvin B. Tucker. ...


Four(4) to ten(10) authors

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In text

In the text, cite only the last name of the first-listed author, followed by 'et al.'.

(Surname et al. Year)

(Stoner et al. ...)

Reference List

List all authors. For 4-10 authors, only the first listed name is inverted. For the remaining authors, the first given name and middle initial(s) - if available - are written in front of the family name.

Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, and Author 4. Year. Title. edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Stoner, James A.F., Paul W. Yetton, John F. Craig, and Kevin D. Johnston. ...


Eleven(11) or more authors

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In text

Name only the first author followed by 'et al.'.

(Surname et al. Year)

(Stoner et al. ...)

Reference List

For eleven or more authors, list the first seven followed by 'et al.'.

Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, Author 4, Author 5, Author 6, Author 7, et al. Year. Title. edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Stoner, James A. F., P. W. Yettor, J. F. Craig, K. D. Johnston, R. L. Yeager, J. K. Smith, J. Pitta, et al. ...


Two or more items by the same author

Order entries chronologically in the reference list.

If the works are published in the same year, list alphabetically by title, then assign 'a', 'b', 'c', as needed. This may mean that (Hartley 2007a) is not the first in-text citation.

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(Author Yeara)
(Author Yearb)

(Hartley 2007a)

(Hartley 2007b)

Reference List

Author. Yeara. "Title of chapter." In Title of book, edited by Editor, page-page. Place of publication: Publisher.

Author. Yearb. "Title of chapter." In Title of book, edited by Editor, page-page. Place of publication: Publisher.

Hartley, John. 2007a. ...

Hartley, John. 2007b. ...



DOIs provide publication details for electronic resources.

What is a DOI?

A Digital Object identifier (DOI) is a unique code, which provides a permanent link to an online resource. The most common resources to include a DOI are electronic journal articles.

How do I find a DOI for my reference list?

A DOI is usually printed on the first page of an online journal article or e-book. You can also check the database record. Alternatively, you can search for your article on the CrossRef database (http://www.crossref.org). If a DOI exists for your article, it will be recorded in this database.

What if a resource doesn't have a DOI?

If it is a webpage, pdf, online document: provide the URL or the URL where you accessed the online document (whichever is easier). Refer to the example in electronic journal articles.

Publication details

No date of publication

Substitute (n.d.) for the year in the citation and reference list.

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Author n.d. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Clipper, Lawrence J. n.d. Pride and pre...

Resources not yet published

Substitute (in press) for the year in the citation and reference list.

Approximate date

Precede the year with the contraction for circa. (ca. 1986)

No place of publication

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e.g. If a book does not have a city of publication, use n.p. to indicate no place in the reference list.

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Author Year. Title. n.p.: Publisher.

... Shakespeare's sonnets. n.p.: Bradshow.


Page, volume, issue

In text citations should include the number of the page where you found the information.

For works without pagination, include a chapter or paragraph number (if available), a section heading, or a descriptive phrase that follows the divisions of the work.

In citations of shorter electronic works, presented as a single searchable document, such locators may be unnecessary.

Summaries of information/sources do not require page numbers for the in-text citation if the information comes from many pages.

Building your own

QUT cite|write is not comprehensive. Sometimes building your own is needed.

Steps to build a reference

A reference list entry consists of:

  • Elements: the elements of information required to identify a source without confusion
  • Order: the placement of the elements in a consistent conventional order
  • Formatting: the separating punctuation, quotation marks, parentheses, italics, and spaces.

Steps to build a reference, or to proof your drafted references:

  1. Glean, collect and save all the information needed / Check that all required elements are there.
  2. Place them in the appropriate order, or check that they are.
  3. Apply / check the appropriate formatting and spacing.

Generally, the elements consist of information as it is copied from the source used, or the location of that source. However, the information when placed in a reference, should then be formatted according to Harvard style, rather than the style found in the source. This ensures consistency for the reader.

Elements in order, of a whole work

Who. When. What. Where.

Examples with formatting

Greer, Ingrid. 2015. The native flowers of Fiji. Sydney: Federation press.

Myer. 2017. Annual report. http://investor.myer.com.au/resource/Myer_Annual_Report_20.

Elements in order, of a section in a work

Who. When. "What." in What. Where in the work. Where.

Examples with formatting

de Janasz, Suzanne C. and Monica L. Forret. 2008. "Learning the art of networking: A critical skill for enhancing social capital and career success." Journal of Management Education 32 (5): 629-650. https://doi.org/10.1177/1052562907307637.

Khan, Zaid. 2010. "Simulation as vocational training." In Handbook of research on discrete event simulation environments, edited by Evon M. Abu-Taieh and Asim El-Sheikh, 339-344. Hershey: Information Science Reference. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-60566-774-4/c-5.


  • Whole works are italicised.
  • Sections of works, or informal titles, take double quotation marks.
  • The order of the first author is 'Familyname, Personal name', and authors following is 'Personal name Family name'.

Information for the elements

Who is responsible for creating the work?

Personal author name, Organisation name, Company name, Name of a government departments, Name of the creating artist

When was the work created?

Year, Date of revision, Date of posting

What is the work called?

Title, Article and Journal title, Chapter and book title, Webpage title, Document title

Where can the work be found?

Where it was published, Journal volume, issues, and pages, DOI, URL of report or article.

Further information

Chicago has two style options, the 'Notes and bibliography' style is described in chapter 14, and the 'Author-date' style is in chapter 15. Harvard at QUT uses the author-date style. However, chapter 15 outlines only what is different from chapter 14, so chapter 14 is still a source to be referred to.

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