1 Malazuru

The Lives Of Others 2006 Analysis Essay

He sits like a man taking a hearing test, big headphones clamped over his ears, his body and face frozen, listening for a faraway sound. His name is Gerd Wiesler, and he is a captain in the Stasi, the notorious secret police of East Germany. The year is, appropriately, 1984, and he is Big Brother, watching. He sits in an attic day after day, night after night, spying on the people in the flat below.

The flat is occupied by a playwright named Dreyman (Sebastian Koch) and his mistress, the actress Christa-Maria Sieland (Martina Gedeck). Wiesler (Ulrich Muehe) first saw Dreyman at the opening of one of his plays, where he was informed by a colleague that Dreyman was a valuable man: "One of our only writers who is read in the West and is loyal to our government." How can that be? Wiesler wonders. Dreyman is good-looking, successful, with a beautiful lover; he must be getting away with something. Driven by suspicion, or perhaps by envy or simple curiosity, Wiesler has Dreyman's flat wired and begins an official eavesdropping inquiry.

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He doesn't find a shred of evidence that Dreyman is disloyal. Not even in whispers. Not even in guarded allusions. Not even during pillow talk. The man obviously believes in the East German version of socialism, and the implication is that not even the Stasi can believe that. They are looking for dissent and subversion because, in a way, they think a man like Dreyman should be guilty of them. Perhaps they do not believe in East Germany themselves, but have simply chosen to play for the winning team.

Wiesler is a fascinating character. His face is a mask, trained by his life to reflect no emotion. Sometimes not even his eyes move. As played in Muehe's performance of infinite subtlety, he watches Dreyman as a cat awaits a mouse. And he begins to internalize their lives -- easy, because he has no life of his own, no lover, no hobby, no distraction from his single-minded job.

Although the movie won the best foreign-language film Oscar of 2006, you may not have seen it, so I will repress certain developments. I will say that Wiesler arrives at a choice, when his piggish superior officer, the government minister Bruno Hempf (Thomas Thieme), develops a lust for Christa-Maria and orders Wiesler to pin something, anything, on Dreyman so that his rival will be eliminated. But there is nothing to pin on him. A loyal spy must be true to his trade, and now Wiesler is asked to be false to prove his loyalty.

The thing is, Wiesler has no one he can really talk to. He lives in a world of such paranoia that the slightest slip can be disastrous. Consider a scene in the Stasi cafeteria when a young officer unwisely cracks an anti-government joke; Wiesler goes through the motions of laughter, and then coldly asks for the man's name. The same could happen to Wiesler. So as he proceeds through his crisis, he has no one to confide in, and there is no interior monologue to inform us of his thoughts. There is only that blank face, and the smallest indications of what he might be thinking. And then instinctive decisions that choose his course for him.

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The Berlin Wall falls in 1989 (the event is seen here), and the story continues for few more years to an ironic and surprisingly satisfactory conclusion. But the movie is relevant today, as our government ignores habeas corpus, practices secret torture, and asks for the right to wiretap and eavesdrop on its citizens. Such tactics did not save East Germany; they destroyed it, by making it a country its most loyal citizens could no longer believe in. Driven by the specter of aggression from without, it countered it with aggression from within, as sort of an anti-toxin. Fearing that its citizens were disloyal, it inspired them to be. True, its enemies were real. But the West never dropped the bomb, and East Germany and the other Soviet republics imploded after essentially bombing themselves.

"The Lives of Others" is a powerful but quiet film, constructed of hidden thoughts and secret desires. It begins with Wiesler teaching a class in the theory and practice of interrogation; one chilling detail is that suspects are forced to sit on their hands, so that the chair cushion can be saved for possible use by bloodhounds. It shows how the Wall finally fell, not with a bang, but because of whispers.

Note: In the movie, one lover is a government informer. In real life, the actor Muehe discovered that his own wife was a Stasi informant.

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This article is about the German film. For the unrelated Indian novel, see The Lives of Others (novel).

The Lives of Others (German: Das Leben der Anderen) is a 2006 German drama film, marking the feature film debut of filmmaker Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck, about the monitoring of East Berlin residents by agents of the Stasi, the GDR's secret police. It stars Ulrich Mühe as Stasi Captain Gerd Wiesler, Ulrich Tukur as his superior Anton Grubitz, Sebastian Koch as the playwright Georg Dreyman, and Martina Gedeck as Dreyman's lover, a prominent actress named Christa-Maria Sieland.

The film was released in Germany on 23 March 2006. At the same time, the screenplay was published by Suhrkamp Verlag. The Lives of Others won the 2006 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. The film had earlier won seven Deutscher Filmpreis awards—including those for best film, best director, best screenplay, best actor, and best supporting actor—after setting a new record with 11 nominations. It was nominated for Best Foreign Language Film at the 64th Golden Globe Awards. The Lives of Others cost US$2 million[3] and grossed more than US$77 million worldwide as of November 2007[update].[4]

Released 17 years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, marking the end of the East German socialist state, it was the first notable drama film about the subject after a series of comedies such as Good Bye, Lenin! and Sonnenallee. This approach was widely applauded in Germany even as some criticized the humanization of Wiesler's character. Many former East Germans were stunned by the factual accuracy of the film's set and atmosphere, accurately portraying a state which merged with West Germany and ceased to exist 16 years prior to the release. The film's authenticity was considered notable, given that the director grew up outside of East Germany and was only 16 when the Berlin Wall fell.[5]

Plot[edit]

In 1984 East Germany, legendary Stasi Hauptmann Gerd Wiesler (Ulrich Mühe), code name HGW XX/7, accepts an assignment from his superiors to spy on the playwright Georg Dreyman (Sebastian Koch), who has previously escaped state scrutiny due to his pro-Communist views and international recognition. Wiesler and his team bug the apartment, set up surveillance equipment in an attic, and begin reporting Dreyman's activities. Shortly after his surveillance begins, Wiesler learns the real reason why Dreyman has been put under surveillance: the Minister of Culture, Bruno Hempf (Thomas Thieme), covets Dreyman's girlfriend, actress Christa-Maria Sieland (Martina Gedeck), and is trying to eliminate Dreyman as a romantic rival. While Wiesler's superior, Lt. Col. Anton Grubitz (Ulrich Tukur), sees no problem with this, as it is an opportunity for advancement, the idealist Wiesler is skeptical. Minister Hempf coerces Sieland into having sex with him by exploiting her reliance on the state for employment as an actress and her addiction to prescription medication. After an intervention by Wiesler leads to Dreyman's discovering Sieland's relationship with Hempf, he implores her not to meet him again. Sieland flees to a nearby bar where Wiesler, posing as a fan, urges her to be true to herself. She returns home and reconciles with Dreyman, rejecting Hempf.

Though a communist and supporter of the regime, Dreyman becomes disillusioned with the treatment of his colleagues by the state. At his birthday party, his friend Albert Jerska (a blacklisted theatrical director) gives him sheet music for Sonate vom Guten Menschen (Sonata for a Good Man). Shortly afterwards, Jerska hangs himself. Dreyman decides to publish an anonymous article on the East German suicide rate in Der Spiegel, a prominent West German newsweekly. Dreyman's article accuses the state of callously ignoring those who commit suicide and of deliberately concealing the country's elevated suicide rates. Since all East German typewriters are registered and consequently identifiable, an editor of Der Spiegel smuggles Dreyman a miniature typewriter with a red ribbon. Dreyman hides the typewriter under a false floorboard of his apartment but is seen one afternoon by Sieland hiding it there as she returns to the apartment. When Dreyman and his friends feign a defection attempt to determine whether or not his flat is bugged, Wiesler, who has become sympathetic to Dreyman and disillusioned with the GDR and the Stasi, does not alert the border guards, and the conspirators believe they are safe. He also decides against informing his boss of Dreyman's article and instead requests that surveillance be scaled back to eliminate his subordinate.

A few days later, Dreyman's article is published, angering the East German authorities. The Stasi obtains a copy of the suicide article, typewritten in red ink, but they are unable to link it to any typewriter legally registered in the GDR. Livid at being jilted by Sieland, Hempf orders Grubitz to arrest her, informing him where she illegally buys her prescription drugs. She is blackmailed into revealing Dreyman's authorship of the article and becoming an informant. When the Stasi search his apartment, however, they cannot find the typewriter. Dreyman and his friends conclude that Sieland could not have informed because she would have given away the location of the hidden typewriter. Grubitz, suspicious that Wiesler has mentioned nothing unusual in his daily reports of the monitoring, gives Wiesler "one more chance" and orders him to do the follow-up interrogation of Sieland. Wiesler resumes his role as Stasi interrogator and forces Sieland to tell him exactly where the typewriter is hidden.

Grubitz and the Stasi return to Dreyman's apartment. Sieland panics when she realizes that Dreyman will know she betrayed him and flees the apartment. When Grubitz removes the floor, however, the typewriter is gone—Wiesler having removed it before the search team got there. Unaware of this, Sieland runs to the street and commits suicide by stepping into the path of an oncoming truck. Grubitz offers a perfunctory claim of sympathy and informs Dreyman that the investigation is over. Wiesler drives Grubitz back to the Stasi, where Wiesler is told that his career is over and his remaining 20 years with the agency will be in Department M, a dead-end position for disgraced agents. As he leaves, Grubitz discards a newspaper announcing Mikhail Gorbachev as the new leader of the Soviet Union.

Four years later, on November 9, 1989, Wiesler is steam-opening letters in the cramped, windowless office of Department M when a co-worker (the same person who was caught telling Wiesler a joke about East-Germany's leader) tells him about the fall of the Berlin Wall. Realizing this will mean the end of the GDR and the Stasi, Wiesler silently stands and leaves the office, inspiring his co-workers to do the same. Two years later, Hempf and Dreyman have a chance encounter while both are attending a new performance of Dreyman's play. Dreyman asks the former government minister why he had never been monitored. Much to his surprise, Hempf tells him that he had, in fact, been under full surveillance and to "look behind the light switches" for the listening devices that had been installed in 1984. Dreyman searches his apartment, finds the wiring, and rips it from the walls in frustration.

At the Stasi Records Agency, Dreyman reviews the files the Stasi kept while he was under surveillance. He reads that Sieland was released just before the second search and could not have removed the typewriter. As he goes through his files, he is at first confused by the false and contradictory information that has been written about his activities, but when he reaches the final typewritten report, he sees a fingerprint in red ink just under the signature. Dreyman finally realizes that the officer in charge of his surveillance—Stasi officer HGW XX/7 (which means Hauptmann Gerd Wiesler, Main Department XX, Department 7)—had knowingly concealed his illegal activities, including his authorship of the suicide article, and that he had been the one who had removed the typewriter from its hidden location. Dreyman searches for Wiesler, who now has a job as a postman, and finds him on his rounds. Unsure of what to say to him, however, he decides not to approach him.

Two years later, Wiesler still has the same job and, whilst on his rounds, passes a bookstore window display promoting Dreyman's new novel, Sonate vom Guten Menschen. He goes inside and opens a copy of the book, discovering it is dedicated "To HGW XX/7, in gratitude". Deeply moved, Wiesler buys the book. When the sales clerk asks if he wants it gift-wrapped, he responds, "No. This is for me."

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck's parents were both from East Germany (originally they were from further east; the von Donnersmarcks belonged to Silesian nobility but the region was transferred to Poland from Germany after World War II). He has said that, on visits there as a child before the Berlin Wall fell, he could sense the fear they had as subjects of the state.[6]

He said the idea for the film came to him when he was trying to come up with a scenario for a film class. He was listening to music and recalled Maxim Gorky's saying that Lenin's favorite piece of music was Beethoven's Appassionata. Gorky recounted a discussion with Lenin:

And screwing up his eyes and chuckling, [Lenin] added without mirth:

But I can't listen to music often, it affects my nerves, it makes me want to say sweet nothings and pat the heads of people who, living in a filthy hell, can create such beauty. But today we mustn't pat anyone on the head or we'll get our hand bitten off; we've got to hit them on the heads, hit them without mercy, though in the ideal we are against doing any violence to people. Hm-hm—it's a hellishly difficult office!

Donnersmarck told a New York Times reporter: "I suddenly had this image in my mind of a person sitting in a depressing room with earphones on his head and listening in to what he supposes is the enemy of the state and the enemy of his ideas, and what he is really hearing is beautiful music that touches him. I sat down and in a couple of hours had written the treatment."[3] The screenplay was written during an extended visit to his uncle's monastery, Heiligenkreuz Abbey.[7]

Although the opening scene is set in Hohenschönhausen prison (which is now the site of a memorial dedicated to the victims of Stasi oppression), the film could not be shot there because Hubertus Knabe, the director of the memorial, refused to give Donnersmarck permission. Knabe objected to "making the Stasi man into a hero" and tried to persuade Donnersmarck to change the film. Donnersmarck cited Schindler's List as an example of such a plot development being possible. Knabe's answer: "But that is exactly the difference. There was a Schindler. There was no Wiesler."[8]

Reception[edit]

The film was received with widespread acclaim. Film aggregate site Rotten Tomatoes reports a 93% "Certified Fresh" rating, based on 142 positive reviews out of 152.[9] A review in Daily Variety by Derek Elley noted the "slightly stylized look" of the movie created by "playing up grays and dour greens, even when using actual locations like the Stasi's onetime HQ in Normannenstrasse."[10]Time magazine's Richard Corliss named the film one of the Top 10 Movies of 2007, ranking it at #2. Corliss praised the film as a "poignant, unsettling thriller."[11][12]

Film critic Roger Ebert gave the film four stars, describing it as "a powerful but quiet film, constructed of hidden thoughts and secret desires."[13] A. O. Scott, reviewing the film in The New York Times, wrote that Lives is well-plotted, and added, "The suspense comes not only from the structure and pacing of the scenes, but also, more deeply, from the sense that even in an oppressive society, individuals are burdened with free will. You never know, from one moment to the next, what course any of the characters will choose."[14]Los Angeles Times movie critic Kenneth Turan agreed that the dramatic tension of the film comes from being "meticulously plotted", and that "it places its key characters in high-stakes predicaments where what they are forced to wager is their talent, their very lives, even their souls." The movie "convincingly demonstrates that when done right, moral and political quandaries can be the most intensely dramatic dilemmas of all."[15]

American commentator John Podhoretz called the film "one of the greatest movies ever made, and certainly the best film of this decade."[16]William F. Buckley, Jr. wrote in his syndicated column that after the film was over, "I turned to my companion and said, 'I think that is the best movie I ever saw.'"[17]John J. Miller of National Review Online named it #1 in his list of 'The Best Conservative Movies' of the last 25 years.[18]

Several critics pointed to the film's subtle building up of details as one of its prime strengths. The film is built "on layers of emotional texture", wrote Stephanie Zacharek in Salon online magazine.[19] Josh Rosenblatt, writing in the Austin Chronicle called the film "a triumph of muted grandeur."[20] Lisa Schwarzbaum, writing in Entertainment Weekly, pointed out that some of the subtlety in the film is due to the fact that "one of the movie's tensest moments take place with the most minimal of action" but that the director still "conveys everything he wants us to know about choice, fear, doubt, cowardice, and heroism."[21] An article in First Things makes a philosophical argument in defense of Wiesler's transformation.[22] The East German dissident songwriter Wolf Biermann was guardedly enthusiastic about the film, writing in a March 2006 article in Die Welt: "The political tone is authentic, I was moved by the plot. But why? Perhaps I was just won over sentimentally, because of the seductive mass of details which look like they were lifted from my own past between the total ban of my work in 1965 and denaturalisation in 1976."[23]

Slavoj Žižek, reviewing the film for In These Times, criticized the film's perceived softpedaling of the oppressiveness of the German Democratic Republic, as well as the structure of the playwright's character, which he thought was not very likely under a hard communist regime.[24]Anna Funder, the author of the book Stasiland, in a review for The Guardian called The Lives of Others a "superb film" despite not being true to reality. She claims that it was not possible for a Stasi operative to have hidden information from superiors because Stasi employees themselves were watched and almost always operated in teams.[8]

In a 2016 BBC poll, critics voted the film the 23rd greatest since 2000.[25]

Awards and honors[edit]

Main article: List of accolades received by The Lives of Others

The film and its principals have won numerous awards. Among the most prestigious are:

The Lives of Others also appeared on many critics' lists of the ten best films of 2007.[26]

  • 1st: James Berardinelli, ReelViews
  • 1st: Shawn Levy, The Oregonian
  • 2nd: Empire
  • 2nd: Marjorie Baumgarten, The Austin Chronicle
  • 2nd: Michael Sragow, The Baltimore Sun
  • 2nd: Richard Corliss, TIME magazine
  • 3rd: Rene Rodriguez, The Miami Herald
  • 4th: David Ansen, Newsweek
  • 4th: Stephen Holden, The New York Times
  • 5th: Roger Ebert, Chicago Sun Times
  • 5th: Richard Roeper, Chicago Sun Times
  • 5th: Liam Lacey and Rick Groen, The Globe and Mail
  • 5th: Owen Gleiberman, Entertainment Weekly
  • 7th: Christy Lemire, Associated Press[27]
  • 7th: Tasha Robinson, The A.V. Club
  • 8th: A.O. Scott, The New York Times (tied with Michael Clayton)
  • 8th: Kyle Smith, New York Post

Acclaim[edit]

The Europe List, the largest survey on European culture established that the top three films in European culture are

  1. Roberto Benigni'sLife is Beautiful[28]
  2. Donnersmarck'sThe Lives of Others[28]
  3. Jean-Pierre Jeunet'sAmélie[28]

Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Netherlands and Sweden had the film at number 1.[29]

Influence[edit]

Israeli intelligence controversy[edit]

In September 2014, 43 members of the Israeli elite clandestine Unit 8200 wrote a letter to Israel’s prime minister and army chief, refusing further service and claiming Israel made “no distinction between Palestinians who are and are not involved in violence” and that information collected “harms innocent people.” One of these people named a viewing of The Lives of Others as "the transformational moment".[30][31]

2013 mass surveillance disclosures[edit]

The Lives of Others has been referred to in political protests following the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures.[32]Daniel Ellsberg in an interview with Brad Friedman on KPFK/Pacifica Radio republished on salon.com stressed the importance of The Lives of Others in light of Edward Snowden's revelations:[33]

ELLSBERG: My knowledge of the Stasi is not very extensive, but it's largely from a movie called The Lives of Others, which won the Oscar for "Best Foreign Film" some years ago. Everybody should get that now. It should be reissued now. Preferably. It has subtitles. In German. But I'd like to see it dubbed so it had a wider audience. What that shows is what life can be with a government that knew as much as the Stasi did then. But if they know—and one thing they can do with that information right now—is to turn people into informants, so that the government has not only the information that people say on electronic devices, they have what they say in the bedroom, because their wife or their whoever—spouse—is an informant. As happened in the movie. That is what did happen in East Germany. And if we were to get that here, and there's the infrastructure for it right now, we will become a democratic republic in the same sense as the East German Democratic Republic.

Film critic and historian Carrie Rickey believes that The Lives of Others was one of two movies that influenced Snowden's actions, the other being the 1974 Francis Ford Coppola film The Conversation, both being about wiretappers troubled by guilt.[34]

Both movies are about the morality of surveillance and the questionable reliability of information harvested—and how listeners can be duped and/or can misinterpret raw data. I would recommend these films to anyone interested in great movies that touch on the issues raised by L’Affaire Snowden.

On 25 June 2013, after revelations of collaboration between NSA and GCHQ, British journalist and documentary maker Sarfraz Manzoor tweeted that "Now would be a good time to pitch a British remake of The Lives of Others."[35] On 16 July 2013, American novelist and frequent cable news commentator Brad Thor stated "At what point did the Obama administration acquire the rights to reenact The Lives of Others?" [36]

French President Nicolas Sarkozy gave an interview in Le Figaro expressing his outrage over being the victim of surveillance himself. He drew a direct comparison to Henckel von Donnersmarck's film: "This is not a scene from that marvellous film “The Lives of Others,” about East Germany and the activities of the Stasi. It is not the case of some dictator acting against his political opponents. This is France."[37] Because of this interview, sales of Le Figaro more than doubled.[37]

Libel suit[edit]

Donnersmarck and Ulrich Mühe were successfully sued for libel for an interview in which Mühe asserted that his second wife, Jenny Gröllmann, informed on him while they were East German citizens[3] through the six years of their marriage.[38] Mühe's former wife denied the claims, although 254 pages' worth of government records detailed her activities.[19] However, Jenny Gröllmann's real-life controller later claimed he had made up many of the details in the file and that the actress had been unaware that she was speaking to a Stasi agent.[39]

Literature and music[edit]

  • Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck: Das Leben der anderen. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 2006, ISBN 3-518-45786-1
  • Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck: Das Leben der anderen. Geschwärzte Ausgabe. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 3-518-45908-2
  • The piano sonata "Sonata for a Good Man", used as the main transformation point of the Stasi Agent Gerd Wiesler, does not carry the name of the composer, as it is original music written for the film by Gabriel Yared.
  • Regarding Beethoven's Appassionata, Lenin is quoted as having said that: "If I keep listening to it, I won't finish the revolution".
  • An excerpt of a 1920 poem by Bertold Brecht, "Reminiscence of Marie A.", is recited in the film in a scene in which Wiesler reads it on his couch, having taken it from Dreyman's desk.
  • The poem "Versuch es" by Wolfgang Borchert is set to music in the film and played as Dreyman writes the article about suicide. Borchert was a playwright whose life was destroyed by his experience of being drafted into the Wehrmacht in World War II and fighting on the Eastern Front.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^"DAS LEBEN DER ANDEREN - THE LIVES OF OTHERS". British Board of Film Classification. 2006-11-27. Retrieved 2012-11-24. 
  2. ^ ab"The Lives of Others (2007)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  3. ^ abcRiding, Alan (7 January 2007). "Behind the Berlin Wall, Listening to Life". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-07-27. 
  4. ^"The Lives of Others (2007)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  5. ^Ash, Timothy (2007-05-31). "The Stasi on Our Minds". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 2014-11-17.  
  6. ^"Director's Statement". Sony. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  7. ^Heiligenkreuz webpageArchived 26 February 2012 at WebCite. Retrieved 26 March 2009.
  8. ^ abFundler, Anna (5 May 2007). "Tyranny of Terror". The Guardian. London. 
  9. ^The Lives of Others at Rotten Tomatoes
  10. ^Elley, Derek (11 June 2006). "The Lives of Others". Daily Variety. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  11. ^Corliss, Richard; "The 10 Best Movies"; Time magazine; 24 December 2007; Page 40.
  12. ^Corliss, Richard; "The 10 Best Movies"; time.com
  13. ^Ebert, Roger (21 September 2007). "The Lives of Others". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  14. ^Scott, A.O. (9 February 2007). "A Fugue for Good German Men". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  15. ^Turan, Kenneth (1 December 2006). "The Lives of Others". The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 9 May 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  16. ^Podhoretz, John (25 July 2007). "Ulrich Muhe RIP". National Review Online. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  17. ^Buckley, Jr., William F. (23 May 2007). "Great Lives". National Review Online. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  18. ^Miller, John (23 February 2009). "The Best Conservative Movies". National Review Online. Retrieved 19 August 2009. 
  19. ^ abZacharek, Stephanie (9 February 2007). "The Lives of Others". Salon.com. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  20. ^Rosenblatt, Josh (2 March 2007). "The Lives of Others". Austin Chronicle. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  21. ^Schwarzbaum, Lisa (2 February 2007). "Movie Review: The Lives of Others (2007)". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  22. ^""Why Dictators Fear Artists" (2007)". First Things. 23 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-24. 
  23. ^Wolf Biermann: The ghosts are leaving the shadows – signandsight
  24. ^Zizek, Slavoj (18 May 2007). "The Dreams of Others". In These Times. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  25. ^"The 21st century's 100 greatest films". BBC. 23 August 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016. 
  26. ^"Metacritic: 2007 Film Critic Top Ten Lists". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 2 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-05. 
  27. ^Germain, David; Christy Lemire (27 December 2007). "'No Country for Old Men' earns nod from AP critics". Associated Press, via Columbia Daily Tribune. Archived from the original on 3 January 2008. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  28. ^ abc"The self-perception of Europeans in comparison with the perception of other countries". Goethe Institute. 
  29. ^http://www.goethe.de/ins/be/prj/eli/erg/ler/enindex.htm
  30. ^https://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/13/world/middleeast/elite-israeli-officers-decry-treatment-of-palestinians.html?module=Search&mabReward=relbias%3Ar%2C%7B%221%22%3A%22RI%3A8%22%7D
  31. ^https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/sep/12/israeli-intelligence-unit-testimonies
  32. ^"European officials lash out at new NSA spying report". CBS News. June 30, 2013. 
  33. ^Friedman, Brad (14 June 2013). "Daniel Ellsberg: Edward Snowden is a patriot". 
  34. ^Hoffmann, Sheila Weller (15 July 2013). "What should Edward 'I'm a brave martyr but I wanna go home' Snowden do now?". The Washington Post. 
  35. ^"quote-sarfaraz". Sarfraz Manzoor. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  36. ^"Brad Thor- Lives of Others". Brad Thor. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  37. ^ abhttp://www.newyorker.com/news/daily-comment/how-snowdens-revelations-saved-sarkozy
  38. ^Nickerson, Colin (29 May 2006). "German film prompts open debate on Stasi: A forbidden topic captivates nation". The Boston Globe. 
  39. ^"Ulrich Mühe Obituary". The Telegraph. 27 July 2007. Retrieved 2012-11-30. 

Bibliography

External links[edit]

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